Exploring Multimedia


The topic I want to explore more is Video presentations and animations for learning. I mentioned in the introduction discussion forum, I think there is a lot to learn from, the independent entertainment industry and their ability to craft hours and hours of amateur content that amasses millions of views. Crash Course is a popular YouTube channel that uses stock footage, animation, and voice over to explain concepts in social studies and science. On the lower end of the spectrum, Did You Know Gaming, accomplishes a similar goal of delivering information but in a much simpler format. I think there is something to be taken from the both approaches. Obviously the production value of crash course ads to its fan base, but even boring ore mundane information can be presented in a more palatable fashion. I think that borrowing from these videos would be great. If schools or educators could generate they’re own content, they would no longer have to rely on out of date videos from questionable sources. Being able curate materials should be possible. In the future I hope I can offer those types of services.

My goal is the setup a visually interesting video that uses some simple animation and is mostly graphic based. I want to make the visuals more interesting than the DYKgaming material, but I do not have to means to go as in-depth as a crash course project. My project is short video that share’s a few facts about the Nintendo Gameboy. I want to use animated text as well as some screen capture. This type of work could be used to teach future programs and students about what was accomplished with limited technology. The format of the video could also be adopted to share facts about other pieces of technology, science, biology, etc.



Learning Goals:

The purpose of this exploration is to create industry comparable video short using all digital elements. This process could be used to make visually interesting work without the high cost. Every element in the video was made at the desk. I want to share facts in a digestible size that will hold to viewers attention.

Capture & Describe:

The process was confusing at first because I did not know the best workflow for the project. I initially started out trying to make out the parts all at once, but had to go back and make a script. Next I would match to sections to the script. I recorded individual sound bites in audacity

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Each factoid was animated in after effects

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I then exported the individual clips into Adobe premiere to edit them together into one file. and add background music.

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I edited the video clips together then I was complete.


The tools I used were audacity for the audio. The images were gathered from the internet and some required touch in photoshop before being used. The text and clips were animated in After effects. The final video and audio was assembled into one file with premiere.


Basic video editing skills as well as knowledge of graphic programs. I believe that my choice of subject matter could has been better. I don’t have the experience as an actual educator so I’m never quite sure what my projects should be teaching unless I am instructed. The voice recording is not the best in my opinion.

Next Steps:

Despite the nature of this process, I do believe that this format can be re purposed and re applied in the process of creating learning documentation. The for-ray was interesting but I do believe it could be pushed. If there was team working simultaneously on different elements then we could push the envelope on the different types of information displayed. Some of the clips even though they were around 12-20 seconds took almost an hour to render. There’s only so much one person can do, but bringing in additional people would add to the overall cost. There has to be a way to implement a cost effective educational graphics team.



Multimedia Design Journal: Thinking Skills

There are three different types of thinking skills; Creative, Critical and meta-cognition. Creative thinking refers to making connections and generating ideas. Critical thinking relates to problem solving and evaluation. Meta-cognition is the ability to be able to set out, plan and execute goals. It involves being rational and understanding.

vitual aid for metacognition from InTeGratemetacognition_cycle_final_1220.png

Studies show that educational and professional programs have had success in transfers thinking skills through learning programs. Successful programs  focus on a few well defined skills. The ability to contextualize those skills and  incorporate collaboration between peers and colleagues.

When teaching think skills you should focus on job relevant skills. General training is easily forgotten and ignored. For the training to be truly successful it must have some use after the training even has taken place. The training should focus on a complete task. The task should come form a real world trial. Authenticity is important. The thinking process must be obvious. Meaning that the learner should know when they are suppose use their own thinking to solve a problem and that the training want provide and correct answer for them. Specify and identify what method of thinking you are suppose to use and how it relates to the job.


Basically be highly specific


e-Learning and the  Science of Instruction; Ruth Colvin Clark • Richard E. Mayer


Multimedia Design Journal: Simulations and Games in Elearning

67% of households have computer or video games with the average player being age  34. Hi quality simulations are already used in training for medical professionals, pilots, other positions. Anderson and Layton found that simulations are preferred above lectures, even with adult learners.

A simulation is a digital environment that is suppose to represent the real world. There are two types, conceptual and operational. Operational teaches specific skills. Conceptual can teach a range of ideas, such as chemistry. Games refer to any commercial style electronic game rather it be educational in nature or otherwise.


Trauma Center was a popular Nintendo game that used a mellow dramatic story line coupled with realistic surgery. The game was praised for its engagement as originality and accuracy. This particular version used a touch screen to preform the surgery. It is an example of a simulation.

Games and Simulations can teach, but sometimes the goal isn’t always the lesson learned. Designers have to take this into consideration to plan to engineer to preferred outcome for the users of the game. As of right now there is no clear evidence that games offer any learning advantages.

  • Principle 2:  Make learning essential to game progress – To ensure that the orignal purpose of the game isn’t lost on the user, make demonstrating knowledge a requirement to progress in the game.
  • Principle 3:  Build in proven instructional strategies- Since the evidence on the ability for games to teach is still coming in. It is the best practice to rely on proven learning design rules and strategies to ensure the success of the program
  • Principle 4: Build in guidance and structure- immediate and quality feedback is needed when. The feedback can be automated and programmed but the user has to know the risk and faults in order to self improve
  • Principle 5: Manage complexity – time and commitment, what are the requirements.how accessible is the software and hardware. what are the cost?
  • Principle 6:  Make relevance salient – This means basically making sure the games usefulness and purpose is easy to understand so that the entire thing is disregarded.


e-Learning and the  Science of Instruction; Ruth Colvin Clark • Richard E. Mayer

Entertainment Software Association’s annual report (2010)

Fair Use Podcast

Project 3: Audio

1.   Podcast Purpose- The purpose of this podcast is to give the listerner some general knowledge about what fair use is and what situations it can apply too. How it can be beneficial to you, and what could happen if the copyright holder doesnt agree with your fair use claim.

2.   Podcast’s Audience – Teachers, Content creators, artist, students. Anyone that may have to invoke fair use

3.  Tools Used to Create the Podcast- Everything was recorded and captured using garage band. The background audio was produced in pro tools for a song i recorded 2 years ago. I exported it in m4a format and used an online converter to change it to an mp3 file

4.  Brief reflection- Most of the podcast I listen to are over an hour. I actually had a hard time trying to keep my subject matter under 5min. Also there is a difference between how podcast feel when created differently. My first recording was 12 minutes long and I spoke at about a subject I new more about. I was able to speak more freely and quickly and sound more natural then I do hear. Since I had to script the dialogue in the final project I did not feel like I had the ability to be free and a lot of emotion is removed from the piece. When listening to professional podcast i prefer the unscripted ones such as well. I feel like a more natural sounding tone would have a better effect on the listener.



Multimedia Design Journal: Who is in Control?

Learners should control the speed and pacing of the content. Audio and video should be freely able to be re-winded, paused, and even skipped. It is recommended that learners always have the ability to control the pace. There are two types of learning control. Content sequencing – which learners can control the orders of topics, for example through a drop menu. Pacing – Learners control the how long they engage in each lesson.

Program Control or Instructional Control, is instructor lead control in a virtual class room. The instructor dictates the path and speed on the course.

Lynda-Probably the biggest source of online technology education material allows you to pic specific sections of a course when working through a program. This allows you skip around to learn specific skills and avoid repetitiveness. However the course wont display as  100% complete if you skip material;


  • Principle 1: Give experienced learners control.- Learners have prior knowledge of the content and skills involved in the training The subject is a more advanced lesson in a course or a more advanced course in a curriculum Learners have good metacognitive skills The course is of low complexity (Clark Mayor p. 319)
  • Principle 2:  Make important instructional events the default – Make the most important parts of the content the default content so that learners in control may not automatically skip knowledge they may not know is useful.
  • Principle 3: Design adaptive control. adaptive control  (also called personalized instruction  or user modeling ), the program dynamically adjusts lesson difficulty and support based on the program’s evaluation of learner responses.
  • Principle 4:  Give pacing control – controlling the pace the material is presented
  • Principle 5:  Offer navigational support in hypermedia environments.

ref: e-Learning and the  Science of Instruction; Ruth Colvin Clark • Richard E. Mayer

Multimedia Design Journal: Does Practice Make Perfect?

In e-learning practice is an interaction that allows you to test and and apply knowledge gained through the course.

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Code Academy: Making a website

The example above if an example of the practice provided by Code Academy. They provide an interactive coding example that walks you through the process of building a real world website. It covers the the sample information provided in the previous text and shows you it’s real world application. They also provide 24hour support for paid members and have a forum for users to self help.

  • Principle 1:sufficient practice interactions to e-learning to achieve the learning goal- Because adding practice can ad to the the expense of the course, you should take care that you are optimizing the course design to be effective as possible.
  • Principle 2:  Mirror the job – Practice must be realistic and a job specific to reflect actual task the person will be preforming in real life.
  • Principle 3: Provide effective feedback – Make sure the feedback provided is accurate. The feedback should also help you learn. You should also be concerned on how the feedback is presented to avoid negative reactions in learners.
  • Principle 4:  Distribute and mix practice among learning events – Vary the practices throughout a course to prevent fatigue.
  • Principle 5:  Apply the multimedia principles – using a combination of text, graphics, images, video, etc the create content with depth.
  • Principle 6: Transition from examples to practice gradually – Make sure the the content is transferable in real life situations.


ref: e-Learning and the  Science of Instruction; Ruth Colvin Clark • Richard E. Mayer

Multimedia Design Journal: Leveraging Examples in e-Learning

It has been proven that learners bypass verbal descriptions in favor of examples. Research has proven that providing examples that allow one to make the connections themselves. Modeling examples are examples that uses a human to demonstrate a task. They include both illustrations and video depictions. There are two types; Cognitive and interpersonal skills. Cognitive uses and individual to demonstrate and solve a problem. Interpersonal is the performance of a task involve an interaction with another person.

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screen shot from: How to Wrap a Video Cable Properly!

The screenshot above is a an example of a Cognitive model. One person is teaching the physical active of how to properly wrap a cable using the under-over method.

There are 5 work example principles:

  • Fade from worked examples to problems: Where a worked example is initially provided then a partially worked example is provided for the learner to finish
  • Promote Self-Explanations: Promote deeper learning by allowing the learner to draw explanations on ones own.
  • Include Instructional Explanations of Worked Examples in Some Situations: Providing to optional choice to view help with an example. If to much help if given right away, learners become faster learners become less invested in the material.
  • Apply Multimedia Principles to Examples: use images, audio, video etc in addition to text to shows examples and convey information
  • Support Learning Transfer: Make sure the examples you include and create are transferable in to real situations.


e-Learning and the  Science of Instruction; Ruth Colvin Clark • Richard E. Mayer




Multimedia Design Journal: Segmenting and Pretraining

Segmenting is breaking a lesson in to more digestible chunks as to not over-burden to learning. Retraining is to reference and reteach ideas in previous lessons when when progressing to re-enforce the knowledge gained. Some material is just difficult to apply the follow coherence principle. In some cases that can take away from the purpose of the lesson.

There are many different ways to segment a lesson. Clark and Mayer suggest that adding a continue button on each segment allows people to work at there own pace. I would suggest a more economical way to achieve this would be to make the project a power point and have each slide

GPC Technology Training Tools

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The GPC icollege instruction starts each section of by segmenting the whole tool into separate lessons. These segments are called the lesson objectives.

The pretraining principle is giving users basic information to work with before the actually start of the lesson. For example it could be a quick overview of the whole lesson before the breakdown into smaller segments. When explaining complex process it often helpful to have foresight on the outcome.

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In the GPC iCollege documents, Each lesson also come with and overview, this will introduce any new language and terms that the user needs to understand to become familiar with the section.


e-Learning and the  Science of Instruction; Ruth Colvin Clark • Richard E. Mayer

Multimedia Design Journal: Personalization Principle

The Personalization Principle is the use of a normal conversational writing voice to convey information rather than a formal writing style. As an instructional designer we almost always used a formal when writing our content.

The common argument against conversational writing as oppose to the formal is that since we know that a computer or video isn’t a person, it shouldn’t be presenting us information in a casual manner. When i worked at university it was policy that all documents issued by the school had to have a certain writing style. This included our e-learning properties. (To clarify I worked for the school, the documents I created were instructions to train faculty and staff in using technology resources) The information delivery view states that is the instructors job to deliver information the best way students absorb it. Student learn better with a conversational voice.

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Personalization Principle Checklist

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In Mitchell Wolf’s Presentation on applying the principle she includes a quiz on determining the best which is the best usage. The correct writen form of the intro is number 2 as it applies to three of the rules on the checklist as the number 1 applies to none.

ref: e-Learning and the  Science of Instruction; Ruth Colvin Clark • Richard E. Mayer

Multimedia Design Journal: Coherence Principle #2

The third principle is to avoid e-learning with extraneous words. Limited screen space would require concise wording. To much narration can add to the file size which could result in technical problems.

The same reasons extra graphics or audio can be a hindrance, also apply to text. It it recommended to avoid extra text for interest, elaboration and technical explanation.

Image from Ben Longs: Complete Digital Photography

Photo Feb 04, 1 18 04 AM

In the Photography text book by Ben Long, Text and images that would be considered extraneous and contained in these grey boxes with black headers. They provide more detail about the subject matter of the section, but can be avoided without causing a disruption. Obviously the information is relevant enough to still be worth the printing.


ref: e-Learning and the  Science of Instruction; Ruth Colvin Clark • Richard E. Mayer