Fair Use Podcast

Project 3: Audio

1.   Podcast Purpose- The purpose of this podcast is to give the listerner some general knowledge about what fair use is and what situations it can apply too. How it can be beneficial to you, and what could happen if the copyright holder doesnt agree with your fair use claim.

2.   Podcast’s Audience – Teachers, Content creators, artist, students. Anyone that may have to invoke fair use

3.  Tools Used to Create the Podcast- Everything was recorded and captured using garage band. The background audio was produced in pro tools for a song i recorded 2 years ago. I exported it in m4a format and used an online converter to change it to an mp3 file

4.  Brief reflection- Most of the podcast I listen to are over an hour. I actually had a hard time trying to keep my subject matter under 5min. Also there is a difference between how podcast feel when created differently. My first recording was 12 minutes long and I spoke at about a subject I new more about. I was able to speak more freely and quickly and sound more natural then I do hear. Since I had to script the dialogue in the final project I did not feel like I had the ability to be free and a lot of emotion is removed from the piece. When listening to professional podcast i prefer the unscripted ones such as well. I feel like a more natural sounding tone would have a better effect on the listener.



Multimedia Design Journal: Who is in Control?

Learners should control the speed and pacing of the content. Audio and video should be freely able to be re-winded, paused, and even skipped. It is recommended that learners always have the ability to control the pace. There are two types of learning control. Content sequencing – which learners can control the orders of topics, for example through a drop menu. Pacing – Learners control the how long they engage in each lesson.

Program Control or Instructional Control, is instructor lead control in a virtual class room. The instructor dictates the path and speed on the course.

Lynda-Probably the biggest source of online technology education material allows you to pic specific sections of a course when working through a program. This allows you skip around to learn specific skills and avoid repetitiveness. However the course wont display as  100% complete if you skip material;


  • Principle 1: Give experienced learners control.- Learners have prior knowledge of the content and skills involved in the training The subject is a more advanced lesson in a course or a more advanced course in a curriculum Learners have good metacognitive skills The course is of low complexity (Clark Mayor p. 319)
  • Principle 2:  Make important instructional events the default – Make the most important parts of the content the default content so that learners in control may not automatically skip knowledge they may not know is useful.
  • Principle 3: Design adaptive control. adaptive control  (also called personalized instruction  or user modeling ), the program dynamically adjusts lesson difficulty and support based on the program’s evaluation of learner responses.
  • Principle 4:  Give pacing control – controlling the pace the material is presented
  • Principle 5:  Offer navigational support in hypermedia environments.

ref: e-Learning and the  Science of Instruction; Ruth Colvin Clark • Richard E. Mayer

Multimedia Design Journal: Does Practice Make Perfect?

In e-learning practice is an interaction that allows you to test and and apply knowledge gained through the course.

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Code Academy: Making a website

The example above if an example of the practice provided by Code Academy. They provide an interactive coding example that walks you through the process of building a real world website. It covers the the sample information provided in the previous text and shows you it’s real world application. They also provide 24hour support for paid members and have a forum for users to self help.

  • Principle 1:sufficient practice interactions to e-learning to achieve the learning goal- Because adding practice can ad to the the expense of the course, you should take care that you are optimizing the course design to be effective as possible.
  • Principle 2:  Mirror the job – Practice must be realistic and a job specific to reflect actual task the person will be preforming in real life.
  • Principle 3: Provide effective feedback – Make sure the feedback provided is accurate. The feedback should also help you learn. You should also be concerned on how the feedback is presented to avoid negative reactions in learners.
  • Principle 4:  Distribute and mix practice among learning events – Vary the practices throughout a course to prevent fatigue.
  • Principle 5:  Apply the multimedia principles – using a combination of text, graphics, images, video, etc the create content with depth.
  • Principle 6: Transition from examples to practice gradually – Make sure the the content is transferable in real life situations.


ref: e-Learning and the  Science of Instruction; Ruth Colvin Clark • Richard E. Mayer

Multimedia Design Journal: Leveraging Examples in e-Learning

It has been proven that learners bypass verbal descriptions in favor of examples. Research has proven that providing examples that allow one to make the connections themselves. Modeling examples are examples that uses a human to demonstrate a task. They include both illustrations and video depictions. There are two types; Cognitive and interpersonal skills. Cognitive uses and individual to demonstrate and solve a problem. Interpersonal is the performance of a task involve an interaction with another person.

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screen shot from: How to Wrap a Video Cable Properly!

The screenshot above is a an example of a Cognitive model. One person is teaching the physical active of how to properly wrap a cable using the under-over method.

There are 5 work example principles:

  • Fade from worked examples to problems: Where a worked example is initially provided then a partially worked example is provided for the learner to finish
  • Promote Self-Explanations: Promote deeper learning by allowing the learner to draw explanations on ones own.
  • Include Instructional Explanations of Worked Examples in Some Situations: Providing to optional choice to view help with an example. If to much help if given right away, learners become faster learners become less invested in the material.
  • Apply Multimedia Principles to Examples: use images, audio, video etc in addition to text to shows examples and convey information
  • Support Learning Transfer: Make sure the examples you include and create are transferable in to real situations.


e-Learning and the  Science of Instruction; Ruth Colvin Clark • Richard E. Mayer




Multimedia Design Journal: Segmenting and Pretraining

Segmenting is breaking a lesson in to more digestible chunks as to not over-burden to learning. Retraining is to reference and reteach ideas in previous lessons when when progressing to re-enforce the knowledge gained. Some material is just difficult to apply the follow coherence principle. In some cases that can take away from the purpose of the lesson.

There are many different ways to segment a lesson. Clark and Mayer suggest that adding a continue button on each segment allows people to work at there own pace. I would suggest a more economical way to achieve this would be to make the project a power point and have each slide

GPC Technology Training Tools

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The GPC icollege instruction starts each section of by segmenting the whole tool into separate lessons. These segments are called the lesson objectives.

The pretraining principle is giving users basic information to work with before the actually start of the lesson. For example it could be a quick overview of the whole lesson before the breakdown into smaller segments. When explaining complex process it often helpful to have foresight on the outcome.

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In the GPC iCollege documents, Each lesson also come with and overview, this will introduce any new language and terms that the user needs to understand to become familiar with the section.


e-Learning and the  Science of Instruction; Ruth Colvin Clark • Richard E. Mayer

Multimedia Design Journal: Personalization Principle

The Personalization Principle is the use of a normal conversational writing voice to convey information rather than a formal writing style. As an instructional designer we almost always used a formal when writing our content.

The common argument against conversational writing as oppose to the formal is that since we know that a computer or video isn’t a person, it shouldn’t be presenting us information in a casual manner. When i worked at university it was policy that all documents issued by the school had to have a certain writing style. This included our e-learning properties. (To clarify I worked for the school, the documents I created were instructions to train faculty and staff in using technology resources) The information delivery view states that is the instructors job to deliver information the best way students absorb it. Student learn better with a conversational voice.

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Personalization Principle Checklist

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In Mitchell Wolf’s Presentation on applying the principle she includes a quiz on determining the best which is the best usage. The correct writen form of the intro is number 2 as it applies to three of the rules on the checklist as the number 1 applies to none.

ref: e-Learning and the  Science of Instruction; Ruth Colvin Clark • Richard E. Mayer

Multimedia Design Journal: Coherence Principle #2

The third principle is to avoid e-learning with extraneous words. Limited screen space would require concise wording. To much narration can add to the file size which could result in technical problems.

The same reasons extra graphics or audio can be a hindrance, also apply to text. It it recommended to avoid extra text for interest, elaboration and technical explanation.

Image from Ben Longs: Complete Digital Photography

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In the Photography text book by Ben Long, Text and images that would be considered extraneous and contained in these grey boxes with black headers. They provide more detail about the subject matter of the section, but can be avoided without causing a disruption. Obviously the information is relevant enough to still be worth the printing.


ref: e-Learning and the  Science of Instruction; Ruth Colvin Clark • Richard E. Mayer

Multimedia Design Journal: Coherence Principle #2

The second coherence principle, is to avoid extraneous images and graphics. Learning is encumbered when there is too much unrelated content included. When selecting images for a project, try finding images that can be interesting and still add to the subject matter. Mayer quotes another book in saying that “In review for science and mathematics book, most of the illustrations were irrelevant.”

Pictures, videos, etc, can make teh experience more interesting according to the arousal theory. The idea that students will become more engaged if you can arouse an emotional connection with the content. There are 3 different types of interference. Distraction(lost of focus), disruption(no conection to the topic) and seduction(makes you start making connections to the wrong ideas).

Simple graphics with fewer details work best.

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In this slide, the image in the presentation is unrelated to the content it’s suppose to be teaching. Not only that it has a very destinctive and obnoxious art style and uses bright colors that take you out of the presentation. This would be an example of seduction and disruption.


Nick Yates: Creating Digital Resources using Instructional Design Principles at TESOL Arabia 2015

e-Learning and the  Science of Instruction; Ruth Colvin Clark • Richard E. Mayer

Instructions: Project 2: Screencast Video

Title: QuickTime Compression

Audience: Anyone that needs to learn a quick and simple way to compress and convert video files using reliable software. Students, Independent learners, some one that just needs help with a simple problem

Purpose: For some one who may be having problems with a file being the wrong size or format without using complicated file converters


My Uses: Compressing videos for mobile uses. It’s great for shrinking large HD files to smaller size better for text messages.


My Learners’ Uses: My learners will be able to create video files that are easier to share, via device or email.