Multimedia Design Journal: Who is in Control?

Learners should control the speed and pacing of the content. Audio and video should be freely able to be re-winded, paused, and even skipped. It is recommended that learners always have the ability to control the pace. There are two types of learning control. Content sequencing – which learners can control the orders of topics, for example through a drop menu. Pacing – Learners control the how long they engage in each lesson.

Program Control or Instructional Control, is instructor lead control in a virtual class room. The instructor dictates the path and speed on the course.

Lynda-Probably the biggest source of online technology education material allows you to pic specific sections of a course when working through a program. This allows you skip around to learn specific skills and avoid repetitiveness. However the course wont display as  100% complete if you skip material;


  • Principle 1: Give experienced learners control.- Learners have prior knowledge of the content and skills involved in the training The subject is a more advanced lesson in a course or a more advanced course in a curriculum Learners have good metacognitive skills The course is of low complexity (Clark Mayor p. 319)
  • Principle 2:  Make important instructional events the default – Make the most important parts of the content the default content so that learners in control may not automatically skip knowledge they may not know is useful.
  • Principle 3: Design adaptive control. adaptive control  (also called personalized instruction  or user modeling ), the program dynamically adjusts lesson difficulty and support based on the program’s evaluation of learner responses.
  • Principle 4:  Give pacing control – controlling the pace the material is presented
  • Principle 5:  Offer navigational support in hypermedia environments.

ref: e-Learning and the  Science of Instruction; Ruth Colvin Clark • Richard E. Mayer

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